Lesson 6.1: Pre- Mid- and Post-Test-Taking Strategies
Q: When should you start preparing for the first test? Circle…
- The night before.
- The week prior.
- The first day of classes.
If you answered “3. The first day of classes,” you are correct. If you circled all three, you are also correct. Preparing to pass tests is something that begins when learning begins and continues all the way through to the final exam.
Many students, however, don’t start thinking about test taking, whether weekly exams, mid-terms, or finals, until the day before when they engage in an all-nighter, or cramming. From the previous unit on memory, you might recall that the brain can only process an average of 5-7 new pieces of information at a time. Additionally, unless memory devices are used to aid memory and to cement information into long term memory (or at least until the test is over tomorrow!) chances are slim that students who cram will effectively learn and remember the information.
Additionally, a lot of students are unaware of the many strategies available to help with the test-taking experience before, during, and after. For starters, take a look at what has helped you so far.
UNIT 6, EXERCISE 1.1
Pre-Test Taking Strategies
Put a check mark next to the pre-test strategies you already employ.
____ Organize your notebook and other class materials the first week of classes (sample notebook organization plan).
____ Maintain your organized materials throughout the term.
____ Take notes on key points from lectures and other materials (examples of note-taking formats).
____ Make sure you understand the information as you go along.
____ Access your instructor’s help and the help of a study group, as needed.
____ Organize a study group, if desired (review of organizing study groups).
____ Create study tools such as flashcards, graphic organizers, etc. as study aids (review of study aids).
____ Complete all homework assignments on time.
____ Review likely test items several times beforehand.
____ Ask your instructor what items are likely to be covered on the test.
____ Ask your instructor if she or he can provide a study guide or practice test.
____ Ask your instructor if he/she gives partial credit for test items such as essays.
____ Maintain an active learner attitude.
____ Schedule extra study time in the days just prior to the test.
____ Gather all notes, handouts, and other materials needed before studying.
____ Review all notes, handouts, and other materials.
____ Organize your study area for maximum concentration and efficiency.
____ Create and use mnemonic devices to aid memory (review of mnemonic devices).
____ Put key terms, formulas, etc., on a single study sheet that can be quickly reviewed.
____ Schedule study times short enough (1-2 hours) so you do not get burned out.
____ Get plenty of sleep the night before.
____ Set a back-up alarm in case the first alarm doesn’t sound or you sleep through it.
____ Have a good breakfast with complex carbs and protein to see you through.
____ Show up 5-10 minutes early to get completely settled before the test begins.
____ Use the restroom beforehand to minimize distractions.
By reviewing the pre-test strategies, above, you have likely discovered new ideas to add to what you already use. Make a list of them.
UNIT 6, EXERCISE 1.2
Read How to Create a Study Schedule to Prepare for Final Exams, which lists 10 steps, 4 tips, 2 warnings, and a list of things you will need. Based on this advice, design a plan you know will work well for you when it comes to studying for any big test–final, mid-term, State Boards, etc.–incorporating at least 10 of the suggestions.
Here is a list of the most common–and useful–strategies to survive this ubiquitous college experience. Note: the important topic of test anxiety will be covered separately, in lesson 6.2.
- Scan the test, first, to get the big picture of how many test items there are, what types there are (multiple choice, matching, essay, etc.), and the point values of each item or group of items.
- Determine which way you want to approach the test:
- Some students start with the easy questions first, that is, the ones they immediately know the answers to, saving the difficult ones for later, knowing they can spend the remaining time on them.
- Some students begin with the biggest-point items first, to make sure they get the most points.
- Determine a schedule that takes into consideration how long you have to test, and the types of questions on the test. Essay questions, for example, will require more time than multiple choice, or matching questions.
- Keep your eye on the clock.
- If you can mark on the test, put a check mark next to items you are not sure of just yet.
- It is easy to go back and find them to answer later on.
- You might just find some help in some other test items covering similar information.
- Sit where you are most comfortable. That said, sitting near the front has a couple of advantages:
- You may be less distracted by other students.
- If a classmate comes up with a question for the instructor and there is an important clarification given, you will be better able to hear it and apply it, if needed.
- Wear ear plugs, if noise distracts you.
- You do NOT have to start with #1! It you are unsure of it, mark it to come back to later on.
- Bring water…this helps calm the nerves, for one, and water is also needed for optimum brain function.
- If permitted, get up and stretch (or stretch in your chair) from time to time to relieve tension and assist the blood to the brain!
- Remember to employ strategies to reduce test-taking anxiety (covered in the next lesson)
- If despite all of your best efforts to prepare for a test you just cannot remember the answer to a given item for multiple choice, matching, and/or true/false questions, employ one or more of the following educated guessing (also known as “educated selection”) techniques. By using these techniques, you have a better chance of selecting the correct answer.
It is usually best to avoid selecting an extreme or all-inclusive answer (also known as 100% modifiers) such as “always,” and “never”. Choose, instead, words such as “usually,” “sometimes,” etc. (also known as in-between modifiers).
Although there is some dispute about this, it is still safe to say that choosing “C” is often correct.
If the answers are numbers, choose one of the middle numbers.
- If you have options such as “all of the above,” or “both A and B,” make sure each item is true before selecting those options.
- Choose the longest, or most inclusive, answer.
- Make sure to match the grammar of question and answer. For example, if the question indicates a plural answer, look for the plural answer.
- Regarding matching tests: count both sides to be matched. If there are more questions than answers, ask if you can use an answer more than once.
- Pay close attention to items that ask you to choose the “best” answer. This means one answer is better or more inclusive than a similar answer.
- Read all of the response options.
In addition to sighing that big sigh of relief, here are a few suggestions to help with future tests.
- If you don’t understand why you did not get an item right, ask the instructor. This is especially useful for quizzes that contain information that may be incorporated into more inclusive exams such as mid-terms and finals.
- Analyze your results to help you in the future; for example,
- See if most of your incorrect answers were small things such as failing to include the last step in a math item, or neglecting to double-check for simple errors in a short-answer or essay item.
- See where in the test you made the most errors: beginning, middle, or end. This will help you pay closer attention to those sections in the future.
UNIT 6, EXERCISE 1.3
Write a letter of advice to Chen incorporating 10 test-taking tips and strategies you think will help him.
Chen believes he is good at organization, and he usually is–for about the first two weeks of classes. He then becomes overwhelmed with all of the handouts and materials and tends to start slipping in the organization department. When it comes to tests, he worries that his notes might not cover all of the right topics and that he will not be able to remember all of the key terms and points–especially for his math class. During tests, he sometimes gets stuck on an item and tends to spend too much time there. He also sometimes changes answers but finds out later that his original selection was correct. Chen is also easily distracted by other students and noises which makes it hard for him to concentrate sometimes, and, unfortunately, he does admit to occasionally “cramming” the night before.