Seven Wonders of Oregon

Seven Wonders of Oregon

A Travel Book for High-Beginner/Low-Intermediate ESOL Students

Timothy Krause

Portland, Oregon

Seven Wonders of Oregon

Icon for the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License

Seven Wonders of Oregon by Timothy Krause is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

Welcome to Oregon!

1

Thumbnail for the embedded element "The 7 Wonders of Oregon"

A YouTube element has been excluded from this version of the text. You can view it online here: https://openoregon.pressbooks.pub/sevenwondersoforegon/?p=81

 

Oregon has many beautiful places. There are tall mountains, small hills, and unusual caves. There are green forests and brown deserts. There is the Pacific Ocean. There are also lakes, rivers, waterfalls, and much more!

In this book, you will read about the “Seven Wonders of Oregon.” These are special places with interesting stories. At the end of the book, there are two more stories about places in Oregon. I hope that some day you can visit them all.

Welcome to Oregon! We’re glad you are here!

— Tim Krause, Instructor
English for Speakers of Other Languages
Portland Community College
September 2018

 

This book was funded in part by a grant from Open Oregon Educational Resources.

The content of this book was inspired by Travel Oregon’s 7 Wonders of Oregon tourism campaign.

“The 7 Wonders of Oregon.” YouTube, 1 Mar. 2014, https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=9&v=g9vrNRAqEkU. Accessed 1 Sept. 2018.

Images are public domain or used included under Creative Commons licensing as specified in the sources listed at the end of each story.

The text was written by Timothy Krause, ESOL Instructor, Portland Community College.

You may also be interested in these titles:

 

Mount Hood

1

 

Mt. Hood Reflected in Mirror Lake

Mt. Hood Reflected in MIrror Lake

Mount Hood is a famous place to visit in Oregon. You can see the mountain from many places in the state. It is about 50 miles from Portland. You can drive from the city to the mountain in about one hour.

Many people climb the mountain every year — almost as many people as Mount Fuji in Japan! Mount Hood is 11,249 feet tall. It is the highest mountain in Oregon. It is actually a dormant (sleeping) volcano.

The mountain has 12 glaciers. It is always covered in ice and snow. People can ski all year long. Timberline Lodge is at 6,000 feet. It is a beautiful place to go skiing or hiking. Some people like to rest by the fire and enjoy the view of the mountain.

The roads around Mount Hood are called “The Fruit Loop.” There are many farms and fruit orchards. They grow apples, peaches, pears, blueberries, cherries, and other fruits.

There are also many lakes near Mount Hood. Visitors like to go camping and fishing at Trillium Lake, Lost Lake, and Mirror Lake. The air is fresh, and everything is beautiful.

Native American people call the mountain Wy’east. They have many stories about the mountain. In the story, two brothers (Wy’east and Klickitat) love the same woman (Loo-wit). The brothers fight a lot. The Great Spirit wants to stop the fight. The Great Spirit changes the brothers into mountains. One brother becomes Mount Hood in Oregon. The other brother becomes Mount Adams in Washington. The beautiful woman becomes Mount Saint Helens.


Think about it!

An interactive or media element has been excluded from this version of the text. You can view it online here:
https://openoregon.pressbooks.pub/sevenwondersoforegon/?p=32

Write about it!

Do you like to visit the mountains? Write 3 or 4 sentences. Talk about what people do in the mountains.

Sources

Crater Lake

2

Crater Lake

Crater Lake

Crater Lake National Park is in Southern Oregon. 8,000 years ago, Crater Lake was a very tall mountain. It was 1,000 feet taller than Mount Hood. Scientists gave it the name of Mount Mazama, but Native Americans called it Moyaina. This means “big mountain.”

How did a mountain become a lake? The mountain was a volcano. There was a big explosion, and the volcano erupted. The top of the mountain fell. It made a large hole. Later, the hole filled with water from rain and snow. The water is very clear, and the lake is very deep — 2,000 feet! It is the deepest lake in the United States.

Crater Lake is a very special place for Native Americans. They have many stories about the lake and the mountain. In one story, a spirit named Llao came from the Below-World to Mount Mazama before there was a lake. He saw Loha. She was the daughter of a chief of the Klamath people. Llao fell in love with Loha, but she didn’t like him. Llao became angry. He tried to burn the Klamath people by throwing fire from a hole in the mountain. 

Several medicine men went to the mountain. They gave themselves to Llao. They wanted to make Llao happy again. But the spirit from the Above-World told them to stop. The spirit fought Llao. It pushed Llao back into a hole in the mountain.

Then blue water flowed out of the hole. It filled the top of the mountain. It made a beautiful lake, and this lake was very special for the Klamath people. It was a place where many Native Americans went to pray. 


Think about it!

An interactive or media element has been excluded from this version of the text. You can view it online here:
https://openoregon.pressbooks.pub/sevenwondersoforegon/?p=34

Write about it!

Did you visit a lake or mountain? Write 3 or 4 sentences. Talk about what people did there.

Sources

Oregon Coast

3

Oregon coast taken from Highway 101 near Brookings

Oregon coast taken from Highway 101 near Brookings

Imagine: the year is 1913. Oregon is a young state. It is only 54 years old. Railroads are bringing more people to the Oregon Coast. Some are only visitors on vacation. Others, however, want to buy land next to the ocean. It is a race to see and build new things. What will happen?

Soon the state government says the entire ocean shore from Washington to California is public land. The state builds Highway 101. This highway is 363 miles long. The state also builds dozens of parks along the road. Tourism grows more and more, faster and faster.

Some citizens complain. They want to own the land themselves. They want to make money. They want private hotels, not public beaches.

In 1967, however, the state government approves the Oregon Beach Bill. It is a new law that says all “wet sand” along the coast belongs to the state. The Oregon Beach Bill lets all people use the beaches for free.

This law protects Oregon beaches. There are few buildings along the water. Instead, there are parks, paths, and golf courses. Horse riding, clam digging, and surfing are popular activities. There are many old lighthouses. Visitors also like to go hiking, camping, fishing, and riding bicycle.

Much of the coast is rough and rocky. Other parts are different. Often there are sandy beaches. One special place has very large dunes. Dunes are large waves of sand made from wind and water. However, one thing is the same: the Oregon Coast belongs to all of the people. Thanks to the Oregon Beach Bill, everyone can enjoy the Oregon Coast.


Think about it!

An interactive or media element has been excluded from this version of the text. You can view it online here:
https://openoregon.pressbooks.pub/sevenwondersoforegon/?p=36

Write about it!

Imagine that you are going to the Oregon Coast next weekend. Write 3 or 4 sentences. What do people do at the coast? What do you need to take with you?

Sources

 

Painted Hills

4

East Face Painted Hills Panorama

East Face Painted Hills Panorama

The Painted Hills are in Eastern Oregon. The hills get their name from the stripes of color in the ground. Visitors see different kinds of earth. The layers of dirt and rock are various shades of yellow, gold, black, and red.

The Painted Hills are part of a larger area called the John Day Fossil Beds. We find a lot of fossils in land that we call a “fossil bed.” A fossil is part of an animal or plant from thousands of years ago. You can see the shape of the animal in the rock. Scientists can study 40,000 fossils from Oregon. They are cousins of elephants, horses, camels, and rhinoceroses from long ago. Some fossils are 50 million years old.

The history of this place is hard to believe. Long ago, Oregon was hot, wet, and almost tropical. The weather was like Costa Rica or Veracruz, Mexico. There were palm trees, bananas, and avocados. It rained more than 80 inches per year. But then Oregon changed. Later, there was a lot of grass. There were many oak and maple trees. Today, the Painted Hills are very dry. This part of Oregon receives only 9 to 16 inches of water each year. Most of this water comes from snow.

Today, the animals in the area are mostly birds. There are more than 50 kinds of birds here. You might also see elk, deer, and cougars. There are beaver, otter, mink and raccoons near the river. Sometimes there are coyotes, bats, and badgers, too — and small animals like rabbits and mice. People sometimes worry that there are snakes, but they are shy and scared of people.


Think about it!

An interactive or media element has been excluded from this version of the text. You can view it online here:
https://openoregon.pressbooks.pub/sevenwondersoforegon/?p=38

Write about it!

Life changes quickly. Write 3 or 4 sentences. How was your life in the past? How is your life today? What is different?

Sources

Smith Rock

5

Smith Rock in the afternoon

Smith Rock in the afternoon

Do you like rock climbing? Smith Rock is in the high desert of Central Oregon. It is a very popular park. People like to climb its rocky cliffs and towers.  It has 623 acres, and there are many animals, such as eagles, mountain lions, and deer.

Some visitors to this park believe that the first animal they see is their spirit animal. This idea came from Native American people. Some believe animals have special powers. A spirit animal guides a person through life. It keeps them safe.

Rock climbing can be exciting and a little dangerous. Smith Rock has many paths to climb. Some paths are easy. Others are difficult. Many paths are bolted. This means there are metal loops in the rocks. You attach your ropes to the bolts. This helps you climb easily and safely.

The weather in Central Oregon is good for outside activities. There is sun 300 days of the year. There is very little rain. The temperature is nice in the summer.

Visitors also play golf. They explore caves. They can play in the Deschutes river or ski on Mount Bachelor. Some people ride bikes on mountain trails or scenic bikeways (roads only for bikes).

Smith Rock is very busy in the summer. Parking is difficult. The trails are crowded. The park suggests:

  1. Wear good shoes.
  2. Bring water.
  3. Stay on the trails.
  4. Keep dogs under control.

People should always remember the famous rule for visiting parks: “Take only photographs and leave only footprints.”


Think about it!

An interactive or media element has been excluded from this version of the text. You can view it online here:
https://openoregon.pressbooks.pub/sevenwondersoforegon/?p=85

Write about it!

Some people believe in spirit animals. They guide and protect us in life. Write 3 or 4 sentences. Which animal is special to you? Why?

Sources

“7 Wonders of Oregon: Smith Rock.” Travel Oregon, Travel Oregon, 20 Nov. 2017, traveloregon.com/things-to-do/trip-ideas/7-wonders/7-wonders-of-oregon-smith-rock/.

“Bolt (Climbing).” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 28 May 2018, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bolt_(climbing).

SmithRock.com | Smith Rock State Park Guide | Smith Rock State Park Oregon, smithrock.com/.

The image “Smith Rock in the Afternoon” By Wealthgapfirefighter [CC BY-SA 4.0 ], from Wikimedia Commons

Columbia River Gorge

6

Columbia River Gorge

Columbia River Gorge

The Columbia River Gorge separates the states of Oregon and Washington. The word gorge is another name for a canyon. It is a deep valley between hills or mountains. A gorge usually has high walls and a river running through it.

The Columbia River Gorge is 4,000 feet deep in some places. It is 80 miles long. It starts at the Deschutes River in the east. It ends near Portland in the west. There is a road on each side of the river. There is also a railroad on one side.

It is very windy in the Gorge. Winds are often 35 miles per hour. In the summer, people like to go windsurfing near the city of Hood River. (Windsurfing uses a surfboard and a sail.) It’s also a good place to fly a kite. In the winter, there are many snow storms and ice storms. Sometimes roads in the Columbia River Gorge are closed because travel is dangerous.

One special place is called Crown Point. It is a small park about 15 miles from Portland. An old road climbs to 733 feet above the river. Visitors can see miles up and down the river. 

Another important place is called the Bridge of the Gods. Long ago, falling rocks made a natural dam in the Columbia River. Humans crossed the river on the rocks. Later, the river washed away the rocks. Native Americans tell many stories about this place. They say that the gods destroyed the rock bridge because humans fought. Today, the rocks in the river are the Cascades Rapids. This is a dangerous part of the river for boats.


Think about it!

An interactive or media element has been excluded from this version of the text. You can view it online here:
https://openoregon.pressbooks.pub/sevenwondersoforegon/?p=111

Write about it!

People in Oregon love to do things outside. Write 3 or 4 sentences. Say what you like to do outside.

Sources

“Bridge of the Gods (Land Bridge).” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 26 Jan. 2018, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bridge_of_the_Gods_(land_bridge). Accessed 25 Aug. 2018.

“Columbia River Gorge.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 30 July 2018, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Columbia_River_Gorge. Accessed 25 Aug. 2018.

“Crown Point (Oregon).” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 14 Aug. 2017, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crown_Point_(Oregon). Accessed 25 Aug. 2018.

The image “Columbia River Gorge” by Bala from Seattle, USA (Bleeding SkiesUploaded by X-Weinzar) [CC BY 2.0 ], via Wikimedia Commons.

 

The Wallowas

7

East Face Painted Hills Panorama

Wallowa Mountains

The Wallowas are mountains in Eastern Oregon. The tallest point is called Sacajawea Peak. It is 9,838 feet high. You can see far away from the top. Some say that you can see into the next state. In one direction, you can see the high desert of Oregon. In another direction, you can see past Hells Canyon. This canyon is deeper than the Grand Canyon!

The mountains receive a lot of snow. Sometimes it snows more than 100 inches per year. That is enough for dangerous avalanches. What is an avalanche? A very large piece of snow, ice, and rocks quickly falls down the mountain.

There are many interesting things to see and do here. However, there are only a few towns. Some of them are now “ghost towns.” These towns were busy in the 1800s. People were looking for gold. Now they are empty.

This part of Oregon was the home of the Nez Perce. They were Native Americans. However, in 1867, the United States government allowed other people to move here from the east. Those people were called pioneers. Another word for them is settlers. Some traveled 2,000 miles from Missouri on a wagon road called the Oregon Trail.

The government took the land from the Native Americans. First, the government divided the land between the settlers and the Nez Perce people. Then the government told the Nez Perce people to leave the valley. There was war, and 125 people died. The government sent the Nez Perce people to a prison in Kansas.

Chief Joseph of the Nez Perce people said:

I am tired of fighting. Our chiefs are killed. … It is cold, and we have no blankets. The little children are freezing to death. My people, some of them, have run away to the hills, and have no blankets, no food. No one knows where they are — perhaps freezing to death. I want to have time to look for my children, and see how many of them I can find. Maybe I shall find them among the dead. Hear me, my chiefs! I am tired. My heart is sick and sad. From where the sun now stands I will fight no more forever.


Think about it!

An interactive or media element has been excluded from this version of the text. You can view it online here:
https://openoregon.pressbooks.pub/sevenwondersoforegon/?p=98

Write about it!

Land is important to many people. Write 3 or 4 sentences. Say why land is an important part of our lives.

Sources

“7 Wonders of Oregon: The Wallowas | Oregon’s Beautiful Secret.” Travel Oregon, Travel Oregon, 21 Dec. 2017, traveloregon.com/things-to-do/trip-ideas/7-wonders/7-wonders-of-oregon-the-wallowas/.

Garvin, Eileen. “Wallowas Oregon | Alpine Peaks, Meadows, & Wilderness.” Travel Oregon, Travel Oregon, 22 Nov. 2017, traveloregon.com/things-to-do/destinations/mountains/the-wallowas/.

“Nez Perce War.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 11 Aug. 2018, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nez_Perce_War.

“Wallowa Mountains.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 10 Aug. 2018, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wallowa_Mountains.

The image: “Wallowa Mountains” by Marc Shandro (https://www.flickr.com/photos/mshandro/35130911/) [CC BY 2.0 ], via Wikimedia Commons

 

Extra: Multnomah Falls

1

Multnomah Falls

Multnomah Falls

Multnomah Falls is a waterfall near the village of Troutdale. It is 620 feet high, and it has two parts. It is the tallest waterfall in the state. The water comes from underground springs.

The park around the waterfall is very busy in the summer. More than 2 million visitors stop at the waterfall each year. Visitors can take pictures from below, but there is a path to a bridge for the perfect view of the falls. Visitors can also climb a 1.2-mile trail to the top.

Native Americans have a legend about the waterfall. The Multnomah people say there was disease in the village a long time ago. Many people died. The medicine man talked with the Great Spirit. The Great Spirit required a sacrifice (a sacrifice is an offering to a god in a religious ceremony).

The Great Spirit required the life of the daughter of the tribe’s chief. The chief did not want this. However, the young woman wanted to help. So she went to the cliff in the middle of the night. She jumped off the cliff and died.

Later, the chief found his daughter’s body. He hoped his daughter’s spirit was well. The chief prayed to the Great Spirit for a sign. Then water began to flow from above the cliff. It created the waterfall and saved the Multnomah people.


Think about it!

An interactive or media element has been excluded from this version of the text. You can view it online here:
https://openoregon.pressbooks.pub/sevenwondersoforegon/?p=121

Write about it!

Think about a time when you helped your family. Write 3 or 4 sentences. What did you do?

Sources

“Multnomah Falls | ‘The Granddaddy’ of Oregon’s Waterfalls.” Travel Oregon, Travel Oregon, traveloregon.com/things-to-do/destinations/waterfalls/multnomah-falls/.

“Multnomah Falls.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 9 Aug. 2018, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multnomah_Falls.

“Multnomah People.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 8 Feb. 2018, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multnomah_people#Legend_of_Multnomah_Falls.

The image “Multnomah Falls” by tommy chheng from irvine, usa (multnomah falls) [CC BY 2.0 ], via Wikimedia Commons

 

 

 

 

 

Extra: Oregon Caves

2

Orca Millers Chapel

Orca Millers Chapel

Many people like to climb to the tops of mountains in Oregon. However, some people like to go inside a mountain. They like to explore the Oregon Caves.

The Oregon Caves is a national monument in the Siskiyou Mountains of Southern Oregon near the town of Cave Junction. Visitors explore a maze of paths and rooms underground. One room is 220 feet below the surface!

In the 1850s, settlers were looking for gold. One man did not find gold. Instead, he found the caves. His name was Elijah Davidson. Here is his story:

Elijah climbed up the mountain. He breathed heavy. His heart pounded.

He called for his dog. “Bruno!” He heard the dog barking, but he could not see the dog. He looked and looked.

First he saw a stream of water. It came from the rocks, but he did not know where it started.

Then he heard more barking. He saw a dark hole in the rocks. The barking came from an opening in the rocks.

Elijah lit some matches. He entered the dark cave. He saw unusual rocks above him. The water flowed on the ground below him. He climbed the rocks to keep his feet dry.

He used the light from his matches. He looked all around. His matches burned and burned. Then the matches were gone, and it was dark.

Elijah was afraid. He did not know what to do. He could not see anything. He stopped and thought.

Then he heard the water. He knew what to do. Follow the water, he said to himself. The water goes out of the cave.

It was a long walk in the water. Soon he was in the sunlight again. He looked at his watch. It was three long hours!

He sat down to rest. But what about his dog Bruno? Elijah stood up and ran to the cave again. Then he heard barking. Bruno was there.

Elijah and his dog returned to their camp. The man told his friends about the cave, the water, and the unusual rocks. His friends did not believe him. However, Elijah took his friends to the cave the next day. He showed his friends that his story was true.


 

Think about it!

An interactive or media element has been excluded from this version of the text. You can view it online here:
https://openoregon.pressbooks.pub/sevenwondersoforegon/?p=118

Write about it!

Use your imagination. Write 3 or 4 sentences. Wrie a story. What happens when you visit the Oregon Caves?

 

Oregon Caves Layout Map

Oregon Caves Layout Map

Sources

“Oregon Caves National Monument & Preserve (U.S. National Park Service).” Nps.Gov, 31 Dec. 2016, https://www.nps.gov/orca/index.htm.

“Travel Oregon.” Travel Oregon, 31 Dec. 2016, https://traveloregon.com/things-to-do/oregon-caves-national-monument/.

The image “Orca Millers Chapel” by Roger Brandt, NPS (park http://www.nps.gov/orca) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons.

The image “Oregon Caves Layout Map.” Npmaps.Com, 2018, http://npmaps.com/wp-content/uploads/oregon-caves-layout-map.jpg.