General facts, states of being, scheduled events in the future, and repeated actions
base form or –s form
- Teachers often grade late into the night.
- Water becomes ice at 32 degrees Fahrenheit.
- Celebrities donate to hundreds of charities every year.
- The plane departs tonight at 9:00 p.m.
Completed actions from the past that occurred at a specific time or facts/states of being that occurred in the past
base form + -ed/-d/irregular form
- Their neighbors worked together to rebuild the house.
- He drove across country to prove a point.
- When she was young, my sister played with me all the time.
Future actions, predictions, or promises
will + base form
- I will eat in a few minutes.
- The rain will stop any second now.
Simple Progressive Forms
Actions that are happening right now, but not happening forever or future actions
am, is, are + present participle
- The teachers are meeting in the boardroom. Josie is meeting the principal.
- We are baking cookies tomorrow.
Actions that happened at a specific time in the past or past plans that didn’t happen
was, were/was going to, were going to + present participle
- They were sailing when the hurricane hit.
- I was going to fly out tonight, but couldn’t get a ticket.
Repetitive or constant actions that began in the past but are still happening or actions that happened at an unspecified time in the past
has, have + past participle
- I have loved dogs since I was a child.
- Alex has lived in the UK for over a year.
- Stephanie has bought three cars in three years.
Actions that occurred/began before something else in the past
had + past participle
- He had just choked when the ambulance drove by.
Perfect Progressive Forms
Present Perfect Progressive
Continuous actions that began in the past but are still occurring
has, have + been + past participle
- Ygritte has been trying to learn knitting for years.
Past Perfect Progressive
Actions that began and continued in the past until some other action in the past occurred
had + been + present participle
- By the time I moved to Klamath Falls, I had been writing for ten years.