Unit 7: Career Exploration

Chapter 30: Interviewing

Lumen Learning and Linda Bruce Hill

“One important key to success is self-confidence. An important key to self-confidence is preparation.”
– Arthur Ashe

If your résumé and cover letter have served their purposes well, you will be invited to participate in an interview with the company or organization you’re interested in. Congratulations! It means you did something right in the preparation process and your prospects for employment are strong.

In this section, we look at how to get ready for an interview, what types of interviews you might need to engage in, and what kinds of questions you might be asked.

Preparing Effectively for a Job Interview

Review the Job Description

Your first step will be to carefully read and reread the job posting or job description to be a better-prepared candidate. This will help you develop a clearer idea of how you meet the skills and qualifications the company seeks. You may want to explain what elements of the job description made you want to apply for the position.

Research the Company or Organization

Researching the company and interviewers will give you a wider view of what the company is looking for and how well you might “fit” in. It is a challenge to measure or define “fit” and can introduce bias. By shifting to “cultural contribution” or what you add and “values fit,” you can show your principles, offer feedback, and be your authentic self. You can show what you know about the company. Make note of its history, culture, and successes. Being prepared to answer this question shows that you took time and effort to prepare for the interview and that you have a genuine interest in the organization. It shows good care and good planning—soft skills you will surely need on the job.

Practice Answering Common Questions

Most interviewees find that practicing for the interview in advance with a family member, a friend, or a colleague eases possible nerves during the actual interview. Check with career services if they provide mock interviews to refine your answers. You can have a dress rehearsal to feel like a real job interview and make sure your clothes are ready to go. Preparing for an interview will help you feel more confident and relaxed when you walk through the interview door. In the “Interview Questions” section below, you’ll learn more about specific questions you will likely be asked and corresponding strategies for answering them.

Prepare Questions to Ask

To help you stand out among other applicants, you can ask what you can do to excel in the position. Asking about the current company challenges shows willingness to solve problems. Asking about their current goals shows you can be an asset to the team.

Plan to Dress Appropriately

Interviewees are generally dressed for an interview in business attire, with the goal of looking highly professional for the industry and the job. Check out the company website and look at images of workers. Gender-neutral attire is clothing that is professional, properly fit, and polished. Confidence is key so wear clothing that is comfortable and allows you to be yourself. You may choose to complement your professional look with your own personality and thoughtful accessories, but do not overwhelm with jewelry, makeup, and hair. Look for organizations that provide support to women with interview attire.

Come Prepared

Plan to bring copies of your résumé, cover letter, questions for your interviewer, and a list of references to the interview. You may also want to bring a portfolio of representative work. Leave behind coffee, chewing gum, and any other items that could be distractions.

Be Confident

Above all, interviewees should be confident and “courageous.” By doing so you make a strong first impression. As the saying goes, “You never get a second chance to make a first impression.”

Be Courteous

Arrive early and set your phone on silent mode. Be polite and courteous to everyone you meet. Smile and have a confident handshake. Follow up with a thank you email within 24 hours personalized by name that shows your appreciation, reinforces your interest in the position, and two-three highlights from the interview.

Job Interview Types and Techniques

Every interview you participate in will be unique. The people you meet with, the interview setting, and the questions you’ll be asked will all be different from interview to interview.

The various factors that characterize any given interview can contribute to the sense of adventure and excitement you feel. It’s also normal to feel nervous about what lies ahead. With so many unknowns, how can you plan to “nail the interview” no matter what comes up? You are also figuring out if you want this job, at this company, with this manager, and these co-workers.

A good strategy for planning is to anticipate the type of interview you may find yourself in. There are common formats for job interviews described in detail below. With proper preparation and knowing a bit more about each type and techniques that work for each, you can plan to be on your game no matter what form your interview takes.

Screening Interviews

The first interview is a screening interview, which might best be characterized as “weeding-out” interviews. They ordinarily take place over the phone or in another low-stakes environment in which the interviewer has maximum control over the amount of time the interview takes. Screening interviews are generally short because they glean only basic information about you. If you are scheduled to participate in a screening interview, you might safely assume that you have some competition for the job and that the company is using this strategy to whittle down the applicant pool. With this kind of interview, your goal is to win a face-to-face interview. For this first shot, though, prepare well and challenge yourself to shine. This may mean dressing for the interview and having a resume in front of you so that it can be referred to. Another suggestion is to use a landline phone if possible or cell phone is fully charged, make sure your video camera is set up, and the location is free of distractions.

Phone or Web Conference Interviews

If you are geographically separated from your prospective employer, you may be invited to participate in a phone interview or online interview, instead of meeting face-to-face. Technology, of course, is a good way to bridge distances. The fact that you’re not there in person doesn’t make it any less important to be fully prepared. In fact, you may wish to be all the more “on your toes” to compensate for the distance barrier. Make sure you test your equipment (phone, computer, internet connection, platform, etc.) is working and if screen sharing, minimize window and close extra windows. If you’re at home for the interview, make sure the environment is quiet and distraction-free with good natural lighting.  If the meeting is online, make sure you’re sitting at a comfortable distance and looking straight ahead at the camera and your background is neutral. You can mute your microphone until the interviewer is done speaking. You can explain long pauses to write notes or formulate your answer and assure it is not a technical glitch. Above all, treat the interview as a conversation to build rapport and to make a connection.

One-on-One Interviews

The majority of job interviews are conducted in this format—just you and a single interviewer—likely with the manager you would report to and work with. The one-on-one format gives you both a chance to see how well you connect and how well your talents, skills, and personalities mesh. You can expect to be asked questions like “Why would you be good for this job?” and “Tell me about yourself.” Many interviewees prefer the one-on-one format because it allows them to spend in-depth time with the interviewer. Rapport can be built. Have handy a portfolio of your best work.

Panel Interviews

An efficient format for meeting a candidate is a panel interview, in which perhaps four to five coworkers meet at the same time with a single interviewee. The coworkers comprise the “search committee” or “search panel,” which may consist of different company representatives such as human resources, management, and staff. One advantage of this format for the committee is that meeting together gives them a common experience to reflect on afterward. In a panel interview, listen carefully to questions from each panelist, and try to connect fully with each questioner. You may be invited to give a presentation to display your knowledge and interest in the position.

Serial Interviews

Serial interviews are a combination of one-on-one meetings with a group of interviewers, typically conducted as a series of meetings staggered throughout the day. Ordinarily this type of interview is for higher-level jobs, when it’s important to meet at length with major stakeholders. If your interview process is designed this way, you will need to be ultra prepared, as you will be answering many in-depth questions and it will be tiring.

Lunch Interviews

In some higher-level positions, candidates are taken to lunch or dinner, especially if this is a second interview (a “call back” interview). If this is you, count yourself lucky and be professional because even if the lunch meeting is unstructured and informal, it’s still an official interview. Order something easy to eat while talking and at an appropriate price range. Do not order an alcoholic beverage and use your best table manners.

Group Interviews

Group interviews are comprised of several interviewees and perhaps only one or two interviewers who may make a presentation to the assembled group. This format allows an organization to quickly prescreen candidates. It also gives candidates a chance to quickly learn about the company. As with all interview formats, you are being observed. How do you behave with your group? Do you assume a leadership role? Are you quiet but attentive? What kind of personality is the company looking for? A group interview may reveal this.

For a summary of the interview formats we’ve just covered (and a few additional ones), take a look at the following video, Job Interview Guide—10 Different Types of Interviews in Today’s Modern World.

Video: Job Interview Guide – 10 Different Types of Interviews in Today’s Modern World


Activity 30-1: What Makes You the Best Person for the Job?


  • Define your ideal job.
  • Identify the top three reasons why you are a great fit for this ideal job.


  • Write a paragraph describing your ideal job. Imagine that you are already in this job. What is your job title and what are you responsible for executing? What is the name of the company or organization? What is its function?
  • Now identify the top three reasons why you are a great fit for this ideal job. What sets you apart from the competition? List the qualities, skills and values you have that match the job requirements. Provide examples to support your answers. Connect your values to the company’s values.
  • Summarize your answer.
  • Submit this assignment according to directions provided by your instructor.

Interview Questions

For most job candidates, the burning question is “What will I be asked?” There’s no way to anticipate every single question that may arise during an interview. It’s possible that, no matter how well prepared you are, you may get a question you didn’t expect. That is okay. Do as much preparation as you can—it will build your confidence in your answers and you will be ready for unexpected questions.

To help you reach that point of sureness and confidence, take time to review common interview questions. Think about your answers. Make notes, if that helps. Then conduct a practice interview with a friend, a family member, or a colleague. Speak your answers out loud. Below is a list of resources that contain common interview questions and good explanations/answers you might want to adopt.

Table 30.1. Job interview questions

1 100 top job interview questions—be prepared for the interview (from Monster.com) This site provides a comprehensive set of interview questions you might expect to be asked, categorized as basic interview questions, behavioral questions, salary questions, career development questions, and other kinds. Some of the listed questions provide comprehensive answers, too.
2 Interview Questions and Answers (from BigInterview) This site provides text and video answers to the following questions: Tell me about yourself, describe your current position, why are you looking for a new job, what are your strengths, what is your greatest weakness, why do you want to work here, where do you see yourself in five years, why should we hire you, and do you have any questions for me?
3 Ten Tough Interview Questions and Ten Great Answers (from CollegeGrad) This site explores some of the most difficult questions you will face in job interviews. The more open-ended the question, the greater the variation among answers. Once you have become practiced in your interviewing skills, you will find that you can use almost any question as a launching pad for a particular topic or compelling story.

Why Should We Hire You

From the Ohio State University Fisher College of Business Career Management Office, here is a video featuring representatives from recruiting companies offering advice for answering the question “Why should we hire you?” As you watch, make mental notes about how you would answer the question in an interview for a job you really want.

Video: Why Should We Hire You?

Interview Fatigue

Job interviews (and the job search process) can be emotionally stressful and exhausting. Do everything to showcase yourself in a positive light. Stay focused on your ideal job. Look for feedback trends and evaluate your skillset. Contact friends and family for advice and support. Prepare how you will work through the rejection in advance. Celebrate your successes. It can take a few months to find the right job for you. Remember, the job market works in cycles for recruitment and hiring so be ready to apply at any time.

Licenses and Attributions:

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All rights reserved content:

  • Job Interview Guide – 10 Different Types of Interviews in Today’s Modern World. Authored by: InterviewMastermind. Located at: https://youtu.be/mMLQ7nSAyDQ. License: All Rights Reserved. License Terms: Standard YouTube License.

Lumen Learning authored content:

Adaptions: Foundations of Academic Success: Words of Wisdom essay removed (exists elsewhere in this work), relocated learning objectives. Image of two men during interview removed.


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Blueprint for Success in College and Career Copyright © 2019 by Lumen Learning and Linda Bruce Hill is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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