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Ellis, R., & Mcclintock, A. (1990). If you take my meaning. London: Edward Arnold.

Hall, E. T. (1989). The dance of life: the other dimension of time. New York: Anchor.

Martin, J. N., & Nakayama, T. K. (2011). Experiencing intercultural communication (5th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.

Ogden, C. K., & Richards, I. A. (1923). The meaning of meaning = a study of the influence of language upon thought and of the science of symbolism: C.K. Ogden and I.A. Richards. Ed. and Intr. by W. Terrence Gordon. London: Routledge/Thoemmes Press.

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Pearson, J. C., Child, J. T., Mattern, J. L., & Kahl, D. H. (2006). What are Students Being Taught about Ethics in Public Speaking Textbooks? Communication Quarterly54(4), 507–521. doi: 10.1080/01463370601036689

Schramm, W., Chaffee, S. H., & Rogers, E. M. (1997). The beginnings of communication study in America: a personal memoir. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.

Seppala, E. M., Hutcherson, C. A., Nguyen, D. T., Doty, J. R., & Gross, J. J. (2014). Loving-kindness meditation: a tool to improve healthcare provider compassion, resilience, and patient care. Journal of Compassionate Health Care1(1). doi: 10.1186/s40639-014-0005-9

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Chapter 2

Berger, C. R., & Calabrese, R. J. (1975). Some Explorations In Initial Interaction And Beyond: Toward A Developmental Theory Of Interpersonal Communication. Human Communication Research1(2), 99–112. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2958.1975.tb00258.x

Clark, M. E. (2005). In search of human nature. London: Routledge.

Geertz, C. (1973). The Interpretation of cultures. London: Hutchinson.

Hall, E. (1976).  Beyond culture.  Garden City, NY:  Anchor.

Hampden-Turner, C., & Trompenaars, F. (1997). Response to Geert Hofstede. International Journal of Intercultural Relations21(1), 149–159. doi: 10.1016/s0147-1767(96)00042-9

Hills, M. D. (2002).  Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck’s Values Orientation Theory.  Online Readings in Psychology and Culture, 4(4).

Hofstede, G. (1980).  Culture’s consequences:  International differences in work-related values.   Beverly Hills, CA:  Sage.

Hofstede, G.  (2001).  Culture’s consequences:  Comparing values, behaviors, institutions and organizations across nations.  Beverly Hills, CA:  Sage.

King, C.  (2019).  Gods of the Upper Air: How a circle of renegade anthropologists reinvented race, sex, and gender in the twentieth century.  NY, NY:  Doubleday.

Kluckhohn, F.R. & Strodtbeck, F. L. (1961).  Variations in value orientations.   Evanston, IL:  Row, Peterson.

Orbe, M.  (1998).  Constructing co-cultural theory:  an explication of culture, power, and communication.  Thousand Oaks:  Sage Publications.

Orr, L. M., & Hauser, W. J. (2008). A Re-Inquiry of Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions: A Call for 21st Century Cross-Cultural Research. Marketing Management Journal18(2), 1–19.

Rokeach, M.  (1979).  Understanding human values:  individual and societal.   New York:  The Free Press.

Schwartz, S. H. (1992).  Universals in the content and structure of values:  Theoretical advances and empirical tests in 20 cultures.  In M.P. Zanna (ed,).  Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol 25, pp. 1-65).  San Diego, CA:  Academic Press.

Sumner, W. G. (1906). Folkways: Sociological importance of usages, manners, customs, mores and morals. 1959 reprint. Boston, MA: Ginn and Company.

Weil, N. (n.d.).  Speaking of Culture.  Rebus Community.  Shared under a CC BY-NC license.

Wrench, J., Punyanunt-Carter, N.m & K. Thweatt (n.d.) Speaking of Culture. Rebus Community.  Shared under a CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 license.


Chapter 3

Allport, G. W. (n.d.). The nature of prejudice. Perseus Book Publishers.

Bennett, J. M. (2009) “Cultivating Intercultural Competence” in D. A. Deardorff (ed.).  The Sage handbook of intercultural competence (pp. 127-134). Sage.

Collier, M.J. (1996).  Communication Competence Problematics in Ethnic Friendships, “ Communication Monographs 63, no. 4:318.

Gudykunst, W. B., & Kim, Y. Y. (2003). Communicating with strangers: an approach to intercultural communication. Boston: McGraw-Hill.

Gullahorn, J. T., & Gullahorn, J. E. (1963). An Extension of the U-Curve Hypothesis. Journal of Social Issues19(3), 33–47. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-4560.1963.tb00447.x

Macrae, C. N., Bodenhausen, G. V., Schloerscheidt, A. M., & Milne, A. B. (1999). Tales of the unexpected: Executive function and person perception. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology76(2), 200–213. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.76.2.200

Opdal, P.M. (2001).  Curiosity, wonder, and education seen as perspective.  Studies in Philosophy and Education, 20,  331-344.

Ramírez-Sánchez, R. (2008). Marginalization from Within: Expanding Co-cultural Theory Through the Experience of the Afro Punk. Howard Journal of Communications19(2), 89–104. doi: 10.1080/10646170801990896

Rogers E. & Steinfatt T.  (1999).  Intercultural communication.  Prospect Heights, IL:  Waveland.

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Spreckels, J. & Kotthoff, H.  (2009).  “Communicating identities in intercultural communication,” in Handbook of intercultural Communication, eds. Kotthoff and Spencer-Oatley (Berlin:  Mouton de Gruyter, 415-19.)

Turner, Hogg, Oakes, Reicher, & Wetherell. (1987). Rediscovering the social group: A self-categorization theory. Retrieved from

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Ward, C., Bochner, S., & Furnham, A. (2001). The Psychology of Culture shock. London: Routledge, an imprint of Taylor & Francis Books Ltd.


Chapter 4

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Barnlund, D. C. (1975). Communicative Styles in Two Cultures: Japan and the United States. De Gruyter.

Bentahila, A., & Davies, E. (1989). Culture And Language Use: A Problem For Foreign Language Teaching. IRAL – International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching27(2). doi: 10.1515/iral.1989.27.2.99

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Derrida, J. (1974).  Of grammatology. (G.C. Spivak, Trans.).  Baltimore:  Johns Hopkins University Press.

Foucault, M. (1977).  Language, counter-memory, practice:  Selected essays and interviews.  D.F. Bouchard (Ed.).  Ithaca:  Cornell University Press.

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Hammer, M. R., Bennett, M. J., & Wiseman, R. (2003). Measuring intercultural sensitivity: The intercultural development inventory. International Journal of Intercultural Relations27(4), 421–443. doi: 10.1016/s0147-1767(03)00032-4

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Nakane, C. (1970). Japanese Society a Practical Guide to Understanding the Japanese Mindset and Culture = Tateshakai no ningen kankei. Tokyo: Tuttle Publishing.

Neuliep, J. W., & Mccroskey, J. C. (1997). The development of intercultural and interethnic communication apprehension scales. Communication Research Reports14(2), 145–156. doi: 10.1080/08824099709388656

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Chapter 5

Birdwhistell, R. L. (1973). Kinesics and context: essays on body-motion communication. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books.

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Burgoon, J. K., Buller, D. B., & Woodall, W. G. (1996). Nonverbal communication: the unspoken dialogue. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Burgoon, J. K., & Hoobler, G. D. (2002). Nonverbal signals(3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Chen, G. M., & Starosta, W. J. (2005). Foundation of intercultural communication. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Ekman, P. (1976). Movements with Precise Meanings. Journal of Communication26(3), 14–26. doi: 10.1111/j.1460-2466.1976.tb01898.x

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Foucault, M. (1970). The order of things an archaeology of the humain sciences. London: Tavistock.

Hall, E. T. (1963). A System for the Notation of Proxemic Behavior. American Anthropologist65(5), 1003–1026. doi: 10.1525/aa.1963.65.5.02a00020

Hatfield, E., & Sprecher, S. (1986). Mirror, mirror …: the importance of looks in everyday life. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

Jones, S. E., & Lebaron, C. D. (2002). Research on the Relationship between Verbal and Nonverbal Communication: Emerging Integrations. Journal of Communication52(3), 499–521. doi: 10.1111/j.1460-2466.2002.tb02559.x

Knapp, M. L., & Hall, J. A. (2002). Nonverbal communication in human interaction(5th ed.). Belmont, CA : Wadsworth/Thompson Learning.

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Chapter 6

Braiker, H. B., & Kelley, H. H. (1979). Conflict in the Development of Close Relationships. Social Exchange in Developing Relationships, 135–168. doi: 10.1016/b978-0-12-143550-9.50011-2

Brown, P., & Levinson, S. C. (1987). Some universals in language usage politeness. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Canary, D. J. (2003). Handbook of communication and social interaction skills. Mahwah, NJ: L. Erlbaum Associates.

Cole, M. (1996). Interpersonal conflict communication in Japanese cultural contexts.  (2004). Face Negotiation Theory. Retrieved from

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Goffman, E. (1959). The presentation of self in everyday life. Doubleday.

Gudykunst, W. B., & Kim, Y. Y. (2003). Communicating with strangers: an approach to intercultural communication. Boston: McGraw-Hill.

Hammer, M. R. (2005). The Intercultural Conflict Style Inventory: A conceptual framework and measure of intercultural conflict resolution approaches. International Journal of Intercultural Relations29(6), 675–695. doi: 10.1016/j.ijintrel.2005.08.010

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Ting-Toomey, S. (n.d.). Toward a theory of conflict in culture. Communication, Culture, and Organizational Processes, 71–86.

Ting-Toomey, S. (1997). Intercultural conflict competence. Competence in Interpersonal Conflict, 120–147.

Ting-Toomey, S., & Oetzel, J. G. (2001). Managing intercultural conflict effectively. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Ting-Toomey, S. (2012). Understanding Intercultural Conflict Competence. The Routledge Handbook of Language and Intercultural Communication, 279–295. doi: 10.4324/9780203805640.ch17

Wilmot, W. W., & Hocker, J. L. (2010). Interpersonal conflict. New York: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.

Chapter 7

Aberson, C. L., Shoemaker, C., & Tomolillo, C. (2004). Implicit Bias and Contact: The Role of Interethnic Friendships. The Journal of Social Psychology144(3), 335–347. doi: 10.3200/socp.144.3.335-347

Allport, G. W. (1954). The nature of prejudice. Cambridge, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Aron, A., Fisher, H., Strong, G., Acevedo, B., Riela, S., & Tsapelas, I. (n.d.). Experiences of falling in love: Investigating culture … Retrieved from

Barnlund, D. C. (1989). Communicative styles of Japanese and Americans: images and realities. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Berger, C. R., & Calabrese, R. J. (1975). Some Explorations In Initial Interaction And Beyond: Toward A Developmental Theory Of Interpersonal Communication. Human Communication Research1(2), 99–112. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2958.1975.tb00258.x

Casrnir, F. L. (1999). Foundations for the study of intercultural communication based on a third-culture building model. International Journal of Intercultural Relations23(1), 91–116. doi: 10.1016/s0147-1767(98)00027-3

Chen, Y. & Nakazawaka, M. (2009).  Influences of culture on self-disclosure as relationally situated in intercultural and interracial friendships from a social penetration perspective.  Journal of Intercultural Communication Research, 38(2), 94.  Https://

Collier, D., & Mahoney, J. (1996). Insights and Pitfalls: Selection Bias in Qualitative Research. World Politics49(1), 56–91. doi: 10.1353/wp.1996.0023

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Docan-Morgan, S. (2015). Cultural Differences and Perceived Belonging During Korean Adoptees Reunions With Birth Families. Adoption Quarterly19(2), 99–118. doi: 10.1080/10926755.2015.1088109

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Fischer, C. S. (1975). Toward a subcultural theory of urbanism. Berkeley: Institute of Urban and Regional Development, University of California.

Gareis, E. (1995). Intercultural friendship: a qualitative study. Lanham: University Press of America.

Gottman, J. M., & Levenson, R. W. (2002). Generating Hypotheses After 14 Years of Marital Followup; Or, How Should One Speculate? A Reply to DeKay, Greeno, and Houck*. Family Process41(1), 105–110. doi: 10.1111/j.1545-5300.2002.40102000105.x

Gudykunst, W. B., & Nishida, T. (1979). Constructing a Theory of Intercultural Communication The Promise and Paradox. S.l.: Distributed by ERIC Clearinghouse.

Hargie, O. (2011). Skilled interpersonal communication: research, theory and practice(5th ed.). London: Routledge.

Ickes, W. J. (1999). Empathic accuracy. New York: The Guilford Press.

Imahori, T. T., & Cupach, W. R. (2005). Theorizing about intercultural communication. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Kelley, H. H., & Thibaut, J. W. (1978). Interpersonal relations: a theory of interdependence. New York: Wiley.

Lee, P. (2006).  Bridging cultures:  Understanding the construction of relational identity in intercultural friendships.  Journal of Intercultural Communication Research, 35(1), 11.  Https://

Markey, P. M., & Markey, C. N. (2007). Romantic ideals, romantic obtainment, and relationship experiences. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships24(4), 517–533. doi: 10.1177/0265407507079241

Martin, J. N., & Nakayama, T. K. (2014). Experiencing intercultural communication. New York: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.

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Sias, P. M., Drzewiecka, J. A., Meares, M., Bent, R., Konomi, Y., Ortega, M., & White, C. (2008). Intercultural Friendship Development. Communication Reports21(1), 1–13. doi: 10.1080/08934210701643750

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Yamaguchi, Y., & Wiseman, R. L. (2003). Locus of control, self-construals, intercultural communication effectiveness, and the psychological health of international students in the United States. Journal of Intercultural Communication Research32, 227–245.

Yum, J. O. (1988). The impact of Confucianism on interpersonal relationships and communication patterns in east Asia. Communication Monographs55(4), 374–388. doi: 10.1080/03637758809376178


Chapter 8

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Hammond, K.  “The Effects That American Pop Culture Has on Our Everyday Loves.”  eHow. Demand Media, 1999-2104.  Web. 30 Dec. 2014.

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Chapter 9

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Chapter 10

Adair, W., M. Taylor, & C. Tisley, (2009).  Starting out on the right foot:  Negotiation schemas when cultures collide.  Negotiation and Conflict Management Research.

Ayoko, O. B. (2007). Communication openness, conflict events and reactions to … Retrieved from

Ferraro, G. P., & Briody, E. K. (2017). The cultural dimensions of global business(8th ed.). Taylor & Francis.

Hirsch, E. D. (1987). Cultural literacy: what every American needs to know ; with an appendix, What literate Americans know / E.D. Hirsch, Joseph Kett and James Trefil. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.

Hofstede, G.  (2007).  A summary of my ideas about organizational cultures.  Retrieved on 7/2019 from

Hofstede, G. (2011). Dimensionalizing Cultures: The Hofstede Model in Context. Online Readings in Psychology and Culture, 2(1). doi: 10.9707/2307-0919.1014

Kluckhohn, F. R., & Strodtbeck, F. L. (1961). Variations in value orientations Florence R. Kluckhohn ; Fred L. Strodtbeck. Evanston, IL: Row, Peterson.

Martin, J. N., & Nakayama, T. K. (2011). Experiencing intercultural communication(5th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.

Meadows, D. (n.d.). State of the Village Report. Retrieved from

Nelson, C. R. (2009). The recipe for business success: balancing the required ingredients and execution.

Ting-Toomey, S., & Oetzel, J. (2002). Handbook of international and intercultural communication. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.


Chapter 11

Basu, A. (1989). Colonial education a comparative approach. Indian History Congress50, 707–736.

Cogan, L. S., Schmidt, W. H., & Wiley, D. E. (2001). Who Takes What Math and in Which Track? Using TIMSS to Characterize U.S. Students’ Eighth-Grade Mathematics Learning Opportunities. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis23(4), 323–341. doi: 10.3102/01623737023004323

Carter, J., Clark, A., Kallestrup, J., Palermo, S., & Pritchard, D. (eds.) Extended Epistemology. Oxford University Press.

Cortazzi, M., & Jinn, L. (1999). Cultural mirrors: Culture in Second Language Teaching and Learning, 196–219.

CTET (2015).  Effects of education on cultural development.  Retrieved from

Dimmock, C., & Walker, A. (2005). Educational leadership: culture and diversity. London: Sage Publications.

Ferraro, G. P., & Briody, E. K. (2017). The cultural dimensions of global businesss (8th ed.). New York, NY: Taylor & Francis.

Fisch, K., & McLeod, S. (2010). Did You Know? Retrieved from

Hofstede, G. (1980). Culture and Organizations. International Studies of Management & Organization10(4), 15–41. doi: 10.1080/00208825.1980.11656300

Hofstede, G. (1986).  Cultural Differences in Teaching and Learning.  International Journal of Intercultural Relations, Vol. 10, pp. 301-320.

Hofstede, G. (2005). Cultures consequences: comparing values, behaviors, institutions and organizations across nations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Hollins, E. R. (2008). Culture in school learning: revealing the deep meaning. London: Routledge.

Husen, T., & Postlethwaite, T. N. (1996). A brief history of the evaluation of the international association for the evaluation of educational achievement (TEA). Assessment in Education3(2), 129–141.

Johns, K. M., & Espinoza, C. (1996). Management Strategies for Culturally Diverse Classrooms. Fastback 396. Phi Delta Kappa.

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Chapter 12

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