In Unit 8, we began our study of vitamins and minerals, covering the basic classification and sources of vitamins and minerals, as well as examining in detail the vitamins and minerals involved in fluid and electrolyte balance, antioxidant function, and vision. In Unit 9, we’ll continue our study of vitamins and minerals, focusing on those micronutrients involved in bone health, energy metabolism, and blood health.
After completing this unit, you should be able to:
- Define bone and discuss the process of bone formation, modeling, and remodeling across the lifecycle.
- Define osteoporosis, identify risk factors for development, and explain how osteoporosis can be prevented.
- Describe the functions of calcium in the body, how calcium homeostasis is regulated, food sources of calcium, and effects of calcium deficiency and toxicity.
- Briefly describe the functions of phosphorus, magnesium, and fluoride in bone health and beyond, their food sources, and effects of deficiency and toxicity.
- Describe the synthesis, metabolism, and functions of vitamin D, as well as food sources and effects of deficiency and toxicity of vitamin D.
- Describe the role of B vitamins and minerals in energy metabolism, as well as food sources and the effects of deficiency and toxicity.
- Describe the specific functions of folate and vitamin B12, as well as food sources and effects of deficiency and toxicity of folate and B12.
- Describe the role of blood, as well as the more specific functions, food sources, and effects of deficiency and toxicity for iron and vitamin K.