Summary Table of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells and Functions

Components of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells and Functions

Cell Component Function Present in Prokaryotes Present in Animal Cells Present in Plant Cells
Plasma Membrane Separates cell from external environment; controls passage of organic molecules, ions, water, oxygen, and wastes into and out of the cell Yes Yes Yes
Cytoplasm Provides structure to cell; site of many metabolic reactions; medium in which organelles are found Yes Yes Yes
Nucleoid Location of DNA Yes No No
Nucleus Cell organelle that houses DNA and directs synthesis of ribosomes and proteins No Yes Yes
Ribosomes Protein synthesis Yes Yes Yes
Mitochondria ATP production/cellular respiration No Yes Yes
Peroxisomes
 
Oxidizes and breaks down fatty acids and amino acids, and detoxifies poisons No Yes Yes
Vesicles and vacuoles
 
Storage and transport; digestive function in plant cells No Yes Yes
Centrosome
 
Unspecified role in cell division in animal cells; organizing center of microtubules in animal cells No Yes No
Lysosomes
 
Digestion of macromolecules; recycling of worn-out organelles No Yes No
Cell wall
 
Protection, structural support and maintenance of cell shape Yes, primarily peptidoglycan in bacteria but not Archaea No Yes, primarily cellulose
Chloroplasts Photosynthesis No No Yes
Endoplasmic reticulum Modifies proteins and synthesizes lipids No Yes Yes
Golgi apparatus

 

Modifies, sorts, tags, packages, and distributes lipids and proteins No Yes Yes
Cytoskeleton

 

Maintains cell’s shape, secures organelles in specific positions, allows cytoplasm and vesicles to move within the cell, and enables unicellular organisms to move independently Yes Yes Yes
Flagella

 

Cellular locomotion Some Some No, except for some plant sperm.
Cilia

 

Cellular locomotion, movement of particles along extracellular surface of plasma membrane, and filtration No Some No

Table 1 The components of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and their respective functions.

References

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Text adapted from: OpenStax, Concepts of Biology. OpenStax CNX. May 18, 2016 http://cnx.org/contents/b3c1e1d2-839c-42b0-a314-e119a8aafbdd@9.10

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