# Glossary

1st Law of Thermodynamics

Any change in the internal energy of a system must in the process of exchanging heat, doing work, or both.

3rd class lever

a lever with the effort between the load and the fulcrum.

absolute zero

A lower limit of temperature corresponding to the minimum possible average kinetic energy of atoms and molecules.

acceleration

the change in velocity per unit time, the slope of a velocity vs. time graph

acceleration due to gravity

the rate at which an object changes velocity when gravity is the only force acting on the object

accelerations
accurate

refers to the closeness of a measured value to a standard or known value

Achilles tendon

a tough band of fibrous tissue that connects the calf muscles to the heel bone

air resistance

a force acting opposite to the relative motion of any object moving with respect to a surrounding fluid

analyze

examine methodically and in detail the constitution or structure of information for purposes of explanation and interpretation

anisotropic

having a physical property that has a different value when measured in different directions

apparent weigh
apparent weight

the reading on a scale that is used to measure the weight of an object that is submerged in a fluid

approximation

a rough value obtained without making a measurement by using prior knowledge and assumptions.

Archimedes' Principle

The upward buoyant force that is exerted on a body immersed in a fluid, whether fully or partially submerged, is equal to the weight of the fluid being displaced by the body

assumption

ignoring some compilation of the in order to simplify the analysis or proceed even though information is lacking

at rest

not moving

atmospheric pressure

the pressure exerted by the gasses in the atmosphere

average acceleration

average change in velocity per unit time, calculated as change in velocity during a time interval divided by the time interval

average speed

average rate at which distance was traversed, equal to total distance traveled within a time interval, divided by the time interval

average velocity

the average of all instantaneous velocities that occurred within a certain time interval, equal to the displacement divided by the time interval

Barriers

Objects, events, or conditions that hinder access.

bedrock

hard rock exposed or buried at the earth's surface

biased

prejudice in favor of or against one thing, person, or group compared with another, usually in a way considered to be unfair or inaccurate.

bipedal

(of an animal) using only two legs for walking

black body emitter

an ideal object which absorbs all radiation that strikes it, with no reflection, and releases that energy as thermal radiation in a way that depends only on its temperature

Bloom's Taxonomy
Bloom’s Taxonomy

A framework for categorizing educational goals.

Blooms Taxonomy
BMI

Body Mass Index (BMI) is a person’s weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters. BMI can be used to screen for weight categories that may lead to health problems but it is not diagnostic of the body fatness or health of an individual

brittle

liable to break or shatter due to relatively inability to deform under stress (not ductile)

buoyant  force
buoyant force

the upward force exerted by any fluid upon a body placed in it

calibrated

defining the values of an instrument's readings by comparison to a standard

calories

unit of energy equivalent to 4.184 Joules

cantilevered

any rigid structure projecting from a support, especially one in which the projection is great in relation to the depth of the structure

cardiovascular system

heart, blood and blood vessels

Carnot efficiency

the maximum theoretical efficiency that a heat engine could achieve when operating between two set temperatures, as permitted by the Second Law of Thermodynamics

Celsius

the most common relative temperature scale

center of gravity

a point at which the force of gravity on body or system (weight) may be considered to act. In uniform gravity it is the same as the center of mass.

center of mass

a point representing the mean (average) position of the matter in a body or system

centripetal acceleration

component of the acceleration directed toward the center of a circular motion

centripetal force

a name given to the component of the net force acting perpendicular to an objects motion and causing to take a circular path

a specific method for unit conversion that is designed to aid in reducing mistakes.

change of phase

the change of a substance between states of being solid, liquid, or gas (or other more exotic phases)

chemical potential energy

energy stored in the chemical bonds of a substance

class of lever
coefficient of friction
coefficient of restitution

the fraction of relative velocity remaining after a collision, for collision with a stationary object equal to the ratio of final speed to initial speed

Cognition

The mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses

combustion

the process of burning, the rapid chemical combination of a substance with oxygen, involving the production of heat and light

compression

reduction in size caused by application of compressive forces (opposing forces applied inward to the object).

Computer modeling

using a computer program that is designed to simulate what might or what did happen in a situation

concentration

relative amount of one substance or quantity contained or stored within another substance or quantity, such as thermal energy per molecule

conclusion

a judgment or decision reached by reasoning and logic based on results provided by analysis of data

condensation

Process of vapor changing phase into a liquid.

conduction

the process by which heat or directly transmitted through a substance when there is a difference of temperature between adjoining regions, without movement of the material

conservative forces

forces that do work which converts energy between forms of mechanical energy (potential energy and kinetic energy)

conservative work

work that converts energy between mechanical forms of energy (potential energy and kinetic energy)

conserved

a physical quantity is said to be conserved when its total value does not change

constant

not changing, having the same value within a specified interval of time, space, or other physical variable

convection cell

cyclic fluid flow caused by natural convection

conversion factor

a number that relates two different units of measure for the same quantity and allows conversion between the two units

Coriolis Effect

an effect whereby a mass moving in a rotating system behaves as though experiencing a force (the Coriolis force) that acts perpendicular to the direction of motion. On the earth, the effect tends to deflect moving objects to the right in the northern hemisphere and to the left in the southern and is important in the formation of cyclonic weather systems

cross sectional area
cross-sectional area

The cross-sectional area is the area of a two-dimensional shape that is obtained when a three-dimensional object - such as a cylinder - is sliced perpendicular to some specified axis at a point. For example, the cross-section of a cylinder - when sliced parallel to its base - is a circle

crust

the relatively thin layer of rock that makes up the outermost solid shell of our planet

data

collection of values measured during an experiment

density

relation between the amount of a material and the space it takes up, calculated as mass divided by volume.

dependent variable

a factor, condition, or property that changes in response to purposeful changes in the independent variable

derivation

a sequence of steps, logical, mathematical, or computational, combining one or more results to obtain another result

dew

water that condenses on cool surfaces at night, when decreasing temperature forces humidity to 100% or higher

dispersion

the action or process of distributing a quantity over a wide space

displaced

pushed out of original position, typically in reference to fluid pushed out of the way by an object placed in the fluid, or an object being displaced from its equilibrium position

displacement

change in position, typically in reference to a change away from an equilibrium position or a change occurring over a specified time interval

displacement method

method for determining the volume of an object by measuring how much water it displaces

drag coefficient

a number characterizing the effect of object shape and orientation on the drag force, usually determined experimentally

drag force

a force applied by a fluid to any object moving with respect to the fluid, which acts opposite to the relative motion of the object relative to the fluid

ductile

able to be deformed without failure, pliable, not brittle

dynamic equilibrium

a state of being in motion, but having no net force, thus the motion is constant

efficiency

ratio of useful work performed to total energy expended

efficient
effort

referring to a lever system, the force applied in order to hold or lift the load

effort arm

in a lever, the distance from the line of action of the effort to the fulcrum or pivot

elastic collision

collision in which no permanent deformation occurs, and kinetic energy is conserved

Elastic Limit

the maximum stress that can be applied to a material before it leaves the linear region

elastic modulus

measures of resistance to being deformed elastically under applied stress, defined as the slope of the stress vs. strain curve in the elastic region

elastic potential energy

energy stored in the deformation of a material

elastic region

the range of values for stress and strain values over which a material returns to its original shape after deformation

light waves, or coupled oscillating electric and magnetic fields fields that can travel through empty space and carry both energy and momentum without moving mass

electromagnetic spectrum

the range of wavelengths or frequencies over which electromagnetic radiation extends

emission spectrum

data which describes the relative amount of electromagnetic radiation emitted by an object across a range of wavelengths, or conversely frequencies.

emissivity

measure of a material's effectiveness at emitting energy as thermal radiation

Empirical models

mathematical explanation of the relation between measured values that is used for making predictions

Energy

A quantity representing the capacity of an object or system to do work.

Energy pathway

the process of transferring chemical potential energy stored in food to useful work and thermal energy

Entropy

A measure of energy dispersion in a system.

equilibrium

a state of having no unbalanced forces or torques

evaporation

vaporization that occurs on the surface of a liquid as it changes into the gas phase

exhaust heat

heat transferred to the environment rather than being used to do useful work

Fahrenheit

a relative temperature scale commonly used in the U.S.

failure region

Region of the stress vs. strain curve beyond the yield point, where permanent deformation occurs.

Feedback

1) information about reactions to a product, a person's performance of a task, etc. which is used as a basis for improvement.

2) the modification or control of a process or system by its results or effects, e.g., in a biochemical pathway or behavioral response

final position

position at the end of the time interval over which motion is being analyzed

final velocity

the value of velocity at the end of the time interval over which motion is being analyzed

First class levers

levers with the fulcrum placed between the effort and load

First Law of Thermodynamics

the change in internal energy of a system is equal to the heat added to the system minus the work done by the system

force

any interaction that causes objects with mass to change speed and/or direction of motion, except when balanced by other forces. We experience forces as pushes and pulls.

force of gravity

attraction between two objects due to their mass as described by Newton's Universal Law of Gravitation

forced convection

transfer of heat due to the movement of fluid molecules driven by external factors other than thermal expansion.

form drag

that part of the drag on an object that arises from its shape and angle at which it moves the fluid and which can be decreased by streamlining

fracture

the separation of an object or material into two or more pieces under the action of stress and associated strain

free body diagram

a graphical illustration used to visualize the forces applied to an object

free body diagrams
free fall

the motion experienced by an object when gravity is the only force acting on the object.

frequency

the number of cycles or oscillations occurring per second, as in the frequency of the electromagnetic oscillations in a light wave

friction

a force that acts on surfaces in opposition to sliding motion between the surfaces

friction coefficient

coefficient describing the combined roughness of two surfaces and serving as the proportionality constant between friction force and normal force

fulcrum

the point on which a lever rests or is supported and on which it pivots

Glossary

The glossary feature includes rollover definition capability.

gravitational potential energy

potential energy stored in objects based on their relative position within a gravitational field

gravitational potential energy
gravity
gravity passes
Green House Gas Effect

Elevation of Earth's temperature relative to the atmosphere-free condition caused differential absorption of UV, visible, and IR light by specific gases and particles present in the atmosphere.

Heat

An amount of thermal energy transferred due to a difference in temperature.

heat capacity

The amount of energy required to raise the temperature of an object by one temperature unit.

Heat death

the degradation of energy quality associated with a spontaneous processes.

heat engines

devices for converting thermal energy to useful work and exhaust heat

heat index

a measure of how hot feels (according to difficult in exhausting heat) when relative humidity is factored in with the actual air temperature

heat loss rate

the amount of heat (thermal energy transferred due to a temperature difference) that leaves an object per unit time

heat transfer coefficient

a measure how well thermal energy is transferred as heat for a given temperature and contact area

histogram

A graph of relating how often a value falls within a certain range.

homeostasis

is the state of steady internal physical and chemical conditions maintained by living systems

Hooke's Law

the restoring force exerted by a spring is equal to the displacement multiplied by spring constant

horsepower

a unit for power equal to 746 Watts

hydrostatic weighing

a technique for measuring the mass per unit volume of a living person's body. It is a direct application of Archimedes' principle, that an object displaces its own volume of water

Hyperthermia

The condition of having a body temperature well above the normal range.

hypothermia

The condition of having a body temperature well below the normal range.

hypothesis

a proposed explanation made on the basis evidence that can be supported or refuted by the result of experimentation

impulse

the average force applied during a time interval multiplied by the time interval

impulse-momentum theorem

the change in momentum experienced by an object is equal to the net impulse applied to the object

independent variable

the factor, property, or condition that is purposefully changed within an experiment

inelastic collision

a collision for which kinetic energy is not conserved

inertia

the tenancy of an object to resist changes in motion

infrared

having a frequency just lower than visible red light but higher microwaves.

initial position

position at the start of the time interval over which motion is being analyzed

initial velocity

the value of velocity at the start of the time interval over which motion is being analyzed

instantaneous

existing or measured at a particular instant

internal energy

the total of a systems thermal energy and chemical potential energy, the total energy stored microscopically within the system

irreversible

a process that is not a reversible process in which the system and environment can be restored to exactly the same initial states that they were in before the process

Isolated system

a system for which neither thermal energy or particles are allowed to leave or enter.

isotropic

having a physical property which has the same value when measured in different directions

iterative

relating to or involving repetition of a mathematical or computational procedure applied to the result of a previous application

Joule

International standard (SI) unit of Energy

kelvin

SI unit of temperature

kinetic energy

energy which a body possesses by virtue of being in motion, energy stored by an object in motion

kinetic friction

a force that resists the sliding motion between two surfaces

Latent heat

the thermal energy required to change the phase of a substance (or released by the substance when it changes phase)

latent heat of fusion

the thermal energy required to melt a unit mass of a substance

latent heat of vaporization

Thermal energy input required to change a unit mass of liquid into vapor.

law

a statement, usually in the form of a mathematical equation, that summarizes, but not explains, the results of repeated experiments or observations that describe some aspect of the natural, usually within a certain range of application.

Law of Conservation of Energy

the net work on a system must be equal to the sum of the changes in kinetic, potential, and thermal energies

Law of Conservation of Momentum

the combined total momentum of all objects in system immediately prior to a collision be the same as the total momentum of all objects in the system immediately after the collision

Learning management system

a software application for the administration, documentation, tracking, reporting, and delivery of educational courses, training programs, or learning and development programs

lever

a rigid structure rotating on a pivot and acting on a load, used multiply the effect of an applied effort (force) or enhance the range of motion

lever arm

perpendicular distance between the line of action of a force causing a torque and the pivot about which the torque occurs

lever classes

There are three types or classes of levers, according to where the load and effort are located with respect to the fulcrum

line of action

an imaginary line that is parallel to a force and extends in both directions from the point of application of the force

linear region

region of the stress vs. strain curve for which stress is proportional to strain and the material follows Hooke's Law

linear thermal expansion coefficient

Material property that relates the fractional change in length experienced by an object due to a unit change in temperature.

a weight or other force being moved or held by a structure such as a lever

locomotion

movement or the ability to move from one place to another

longitudinal

running lengthwise rather than across

magnitude

the size or extent of a vector quantity, regardless of direction

malleable

able to be hammered or pressed permanently out of shape without breaking or cracking

mantle

the mantle is the mostly-solid bulk of Earth's interior. The mantle lies between Earth's dense, super-heated core and its thin outer layer, the crust.

mass

a measurement of the amount of matter in an object made by determining its resistance to changes in motion (inertial mass) or the force of gravity applied to it by another known mass from a known distance (gravitational mass). The gravitational mass and an inertial mass appear equal.

measurement error

Measurement Error (also called Observational Error) is the difference between a measured quantity and its true value. It includes random error (naturally occurring errors that are to be expected with any experiment) and systematic error (caused by a mis-calibrated instrument that affects all measurements)

measurement units

a unit of measurement is a definite magnitude of a quantity, defined and adopted by convention or by law, that is used as a standard for measurement of the same kind of quantity. Any other quantity of that kind can be expressed as a multiple of the unit of measurement.

ratio of the output and input forces of a machine

mechanical efficiency

the effectiveness of a machine in transforming the energy input to the device to mechanical energy output

mechanical energy

the sum of potential and kinetic energy

Melting

changing phase from solid to liquid.

Metacognition

awareness and understanding of one's own thought processes

metastable equilibrium

a state in which a slight disturbance results in a restoring force that maintains stability, but a sufficiently large disturbance moves the system into an unstable region (or different metastable region)

method of significant figures

using the number of digits provided in a measurement value to indicate the measurement uncertainty

metric prefix

a unit prefix that precedes a basic unit of measure to indicate a multiple or fraction of the unit

model

a representation of something that is often too difficult (or impossible) to observe or display directly

momentum

the combined effect of mass and velocity, defined as mass multiplied by velocity

Motion graphs

graphs or plots with time on the horizontal axis and position or velocity or acceleration on the vertical axis

Splitting attention between more than one task at a time.

Natural convection

Transfer of heat due to fluid movement caused by thermal expansion of the fluid

negligible

small enough as to not push the results of an analysis outside the desired level of accuracy

nervous system

the network of nerve cells and fibers which transmits nerve impulses between parts of the body

net force

the total amount of remaining unbalanced force on an object

net torque

remaining unbalanced torque on an object

net work

total work done on an object, equal to the addition of all separate works done on the object, or the work done by the net force

Newton

the SI unit of force. It is equal to the force that would give a mass of one kilogram an acceleration of one meter per second per second

Newton's 3rd Law
Newton's First Law

an object's motion will not change unless it experiences a net force

Newton's Law of Cooling

Observation that the rate of change of the temperature of an object is proportional to the difference between its own temperature and the environmental temperature

Newton's Second Law

the acceleration experienced by an object is equal to the net force on the object divided my the object's mass

Newton's Third Law

for every force applied by an object on a second object, a force equal in size, but opposite in direction, will be applied to the first object by the second object

Newtons
non-conservative forces

forces that do non-conservative work, which is work that does not transfer energy only among kinetic and potential forms (mechanical energy)

normal force

the outward force supplied by an object in response to being compressed from opposite directions, typically in reference to solid objects.

null hypothesis

default position that there is no relation between two measured quantities

numerical simulation

a calculation that is run on a computer following a program that implements a mathematical model for a physical system

order of magnitude

designating which power of 10 (e.g. 1,10,100,100)

order of magnitude estimation

the process of approximating a value to obtain a result you expect to at least be within one order of magnitude of the correct answer.

origin

location where the position is zero

oscillatory

repetitive variation, typically in time, of some measure about a central value

parallel

side by side, pointing in exactly the same direction, or having the same distance continuously between them

Pascals

the SI derived unit of pressure used to quantify internal pressure, stress, Young's modulus and ultimate tensile strength. It is defined as one newton per square meter

perfectly elastic collision

a collision for which initial and final values of the total kinetic energy of all objects in the system are the same

perfectly inelastic collisions

collisions in which the colliding objects stick together (explosions are perfectly inelastic collisions in reverse)

perpendicular

at an angle of 90° to a given line, plane, or surface

perpendicular distance
Physical models

mechanistic explanation of how a physical system works

piezoelectric effect

the ability of certain materials to generate an electric charge in response to applied mechanical stress

pivot

the central point, pin, or shaft on which a mechanism turns or oscillates

plastic region

the range of values for stress and strain over which a material experiences permanent deformation

position

location in space defined relative to a chosen origin, or location where the value of position is zero

potential energy

the energy stored within an object, due to the object's position, arrangement or state. Examples are gravitational potential energy due to the relative position of masses and elastic potential energy caused by being under stress

pounds

a unit of force equal to 4.44822 Newtons, or the the weight of a 0.4536 kg mass on Earth's surface

power

the rate at which work is done, the rate at which energy is converted from one form to another

precision

refers to the closeness of two or more measurements to each other

preponderance

the quality or fact of being greater in number, quantity, or importance

pressure

force per unit area

principle

principles summarize rules created and followed by scientists when formulating hypotheses, designing experiments, analyzing results.

Principle of Conservation of Energy

Energy cannot be created or destroyed, only transferred from one type to another and/or from one object to another

Principle of Conservation of Momentum

the momentum of an object or collection of objects (system) remains constant if the net impulse on the system is zero

prone

lying horizontally with the face and torso facing down

proportional

having a constant ratio to another quantity

qualitative

describing what happens, but not how much happens

quantitative

describing what and how much happens

a unit of angle, equal to an angle at the center of a circle that produces an arc length equal to the radius

random error

random errors are fluctuations (in both directions) in the measured data due to the precision limitations of the measurement device. Random errors usually result from the experimenter's inability to take the same measurement in exactly the same way to get exact the same number

range of motion

distance or angle traversed by a body part

rate of heat transfer

amount of thermal energy transferred into our, out of an object as heat, per unit time

reactive force

a type of force supplied by an object in response to application of a different force on the object. Friction is a reactive force

Relative humidity

a measure of how many water molecules are in the vapor phase relative to the maximum number that could possibly be in the vapor phase at at a given temperature. A relative humidity of 100% means that no more water molecules can be added to the vapor phase.

resistance

the force working against the rotation of a lever that would be caused by the effort

resistance arm

shortest distance from the line of action of the resistance to the fulcrum

restoring force

a force that tends to move a system back toward the equilibrium position

results

information acquired by analyzing data

rotational equilibrium

a state of having not net torque and no change in rotational motion

rupture

the sudden and complete failure of a material under stress

scientific method

a method of procedure that has characterized natural science since the 17th century, consisting in systematic observation, measurement, and experiment, and the formulation, testing, and modification of hypotheses

scientific notation

a way of writing very large or very small numbers. A number is written in scientific notation when a number between 1 and 10 is multiplied by a power of 10.

SCUBA

self-contained underwater breathing apparatus

Second class levers

levers with the resistance (load) in-between the effort and the fulcrum

Second Law of Thermodynamics

the total entropy of an isolated system can never decrease over time, meaning objects left to themselves will always trend toward thermal equilibrium, meaning that thermal energy will always spontaneously transfer from hot system to cold system

Sentinel Event

an unexpected occurrence involving death or serious physical or psychological injury, or the risk thereof. Serious injury specifically includes loss of limb or function.

significant figures

each of the digits of a number that are used to express it to the required degree of accuracy, starting from the first nonzero digit

skin drag

friction caused by the viscous nature of fluids

skinfold method

method for measuring body fat percentage using specially designed calipers to measure the thickness of skinfolds that are pinched from several specific locations on the body as inputs to empirical equations

slope

the steepness of a line, defined as vertical change between two points (rise), divided by the horizontal change between the same two points (run)

sonic boom

the sound associated with the shock waves created whenever an object travelling through the air travels faster than the speed of sound

sound barrier

sudden increase in aerodynamic drag and other undesirable effects experienced by an object when it approaches the speed of sound

specific gravity

the ratio of the density of a substance to the density of a standard, usually water for a liquid or solid, and air for a gas

specific heat

A material property that determines the amount of energy required to raise the temperature one mass unit of the material by one temperature unit.

speed

distance traveled per unit time

speeds
Spontaneous process

a process which occurs naturally on its own, without the need for work to be done in forcing it to happen.

spring constant

measure of the stiffness of a spring, defined as the slope of the force vs. displacement curve for a spring

stability

a measure of the displacement from equilibrium an object can experience and still move back toward equilibrium

stable equilibrium

a state in which a body tends to return to its original position after being disturbed

standard deviation

is a measure that is used to quantify the amount of variation or dispersion of a set of data values

standard scientific (SI) units

a system of physical units ( SI units ) based on the meter, kilogram, second, ampere, kelvin, candela, and mole

static equilibrium

the state being in equilibrium (no unbalanced forces or torques) and also having no motion

static friction

a force that resists the tenancy of surfaces to slide across one another due to a force(s) being applied to one or both of the surfaces

Stephan-Boltzmann Law

The total radiant heat energy emitted from a surface is proportional to the fourth power of its absolute temperature.

strain

the measure of the relative deformation of the material

stress

a physical quantity that expresses the internal forces that neighboring particles of material exert on each other

Study strategy

a thoughtful and specific process for self-directed learning.

support base

region defined by lines connecting points of contact with the supporting surface

Systematic errors

an error having a nonzero mean (average), so that its effect is not reduced when many observations are averaged. Usually occurring because
there is something wrong with the instrument or how it is used.

temperature

a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles (e.g., atoms and molecules) in an object, which determines how relatively hot or cold an object feels

tension

the force that is provided by an object in response to being pulled tight by forces acting from opposite ends, typically in reference to a rope, cable or wire

terminal speed

the speed at which restive forces such as friction and drag balance driving forces and speed stops increasing, e.g. the gravitational force on a falling object is balanced by air resistance

test conditions

an item or event of a component or system that could be verified by one or more test cases, e.g., a function, transaction, feature, quality, attribute, or structural element

theory

an explanation of an aspect of the natural world that can be repeatedly tested and verified in accordance with the scientific method using accepted standard protocols

thermal conductivity

a measure of a material's ability to conduct heat

thermal energy

energy stored in the microscopic motion of atoms and molecules (microscopic kinetic energy)

thermal equilibrium

a two systems are in thermal equilibrium when they do not exchange heat, which means they must be at the same temperature

thermal expansion

The increase change in volume of an object resulting from a change in temperature.

thermal image

image created by substituting visible color variations for temperature variations determined by measuring variations in thermal radiation intensity and/or wavelengths

thermal insulation

materials designed to slow the rate of heat transfer

Thermal power

rate at which chemical potential energy is converted to thermal energy by the body, batteries, or heat engines. Also, rate at which thermal energy is converted to electrical energy by a thermal power plant.

Electromagnetic radiation spontaneously emitted by all objects with temperature above absolute zero.

thermometer

a device that measures temperature

third law pair forces

a pair of equal and opposite forces applied between two different objects as described by Newton's Third Law of Motion

tipping point

the point at which an object is displaced from a region of stable equilibrium

toe region

range of values for stress and strain over which a material experiences large strain for relatively small stress due to un-crimping

torque

the result of a force applied to an object in such a way that the object would change its rotational speed, except when the torque is balanced by other torques

torques
translational equilibrium

a state of having no net force and thus no change in translational motion, though the net torque may be non-zero

translational motion

motion by which a body shifts from one point in space to another (up-down, back-forth, left-right)

transparent

allow light to pass through with minimal absorption

transverse

situated or extending across something, (crosswise)

ultimate strength

the maximum stress a material can withstand

uncertainty

Amount by which a measured, calculated, or approximated value could be different from the actual value

uncrimp

non-permanent re-alignment of substructures (fibers) in a material that results in non-linear behavior at stress values less than the yield stress.

under water weight

apparent weight when submerged in water

uniform circular motion

motion of an object traveling at a constant speed on a circular path

uniformly

in a way that is the same in all cases, across a defined set of space and times

unit analysis

act of ensuring that the units resulting from a calculation match the type of quantity calculated.

Universal Law of Gravitation

every particle attracts every other particle in the universe with a force which is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between their centers

unstable equilibrium

a state of equilibrium such that when the body is slightly displaced it departs further from the original position

useful work

work done on the external environment, such as moving objects, as apposed to work done internally, such as pumping blood

variable

a factor, property, or condition that can change during an experiment

vectors

a quantity having direction as well as magnitude

velocity

a quantity of speed with a defined direction, the change in speed per unit time, the slope of the position vs. time graph

viscous

a fluid that exhibits a large degree of internal friction (between sections of the fluid moving with different speed or direction)

visible spectrum

the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye

volume

a quantity of space, such as the volume within a box or the volume taken up by an object.

Watts

international standard unit of power, equal to one Joule per second

wavelength

the distance between successive crests of a wave, such as a sound wave or electromagnetic wave

weight

the force of gravity on on object, typically in reference to the force of gravity caused by Earth or another celestial body

wind chill effect

Increase in rate of heat loss from objects that are warmer than air caused by the flow of air across the object surface.

Work

A quantity representing the effect of applying a force to an object or system while it moves some distance.

work-energy principle

the change in kinetic energy of an object or system is equal to the net work done on the object or system

yield point

the value of the stress (yield stress) and strain (yield strain) beyond which a material will maintain some permanent deformation