Key Terms and Concepts
- Compare, contrast, and convert between absolute and relative temperature scales.
- Evaluate the effectiveness of various types of insulation against different mechanisms of heat transfer.
- Apply the concepts of temperature, thermal expansion, specific heat, heat capacity, and latent heat, to analyze how physical objects respond to heat transfer.
- Apply the Second Law of Thermodynamics to predict the outcome of physical scenarios.
a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles (e.g., atoms and molecules) in an object, which determines how relatively hot or cold an object feels
The increase change in volume of an object resulting from a change in temperature.
energy stored in the microscopic motion of atoms and molecules (microscopic kinetic energy)
An amount of thermal energy transferred due to a difference in temperature.
the process by which heat or directly transmitted through a substance when there is a difference of temperature between adjoining regions, without movement of the material
transfer of heat due to the movement of fluid molecules driven by external factors other than thermal expansion.
Transfer of heat due to fluid movement caused by thermal expansion of the fluid
Electromagnetic radiation spontaneously emitted by all objects with temperature above absolute zero.
The amount of energy required to raise the temperature of an object by one temperature unit.
the change of a substance between states of being solid, liquid, or gas (or other more exotic phases)
the thermal energy required to change the phase of a substance (or released by the substance when it changes phase)
A measure of energy dispersion in a system.
the total entropy of an isolated system can never decrease over time, meaning objects left to themselves will always trend toward thermal equilibrium, meaning that thermal energy will always spontaneously transfer from hot system to cold system
devices for converting thermal energy to useful work and exhaust heat
ratio of useful work performed to total energy expended