Key Terms and Concepts
- Define and recognize work, kinetic energy, and potential energy, including elastic, gravitational, and chemical.
- Apply the Law of Conservation of Energy and The First Law of Thermodynamics to the analysis of physical processes.
- Determine the efficiency of physical processes and machines.
- Evaluate the power output of machines.
energy which a body possesses by virtue of being in motion, energy stored by an object in motion
A quantity representing the effect of applying a force to an object or system while it moves some distance.
the change in kinetic energy of an object or system is equal to the net work done on the object or system
energy stored in the microscopic motion of atoms and molecules (microscopic kinetic energy)
energy stored in the deformation of a material
collision in which no permanent deformation occurs, and kinetic energy is conserved
a collision for which kinetic energy is not conserved
the fraction of relative velocity remaining after a collision, for collision with a stationary object equal to the ratio of final speed to initial speed
potential energy stored in objects based on their relative position within a gravitational field
the net work on a system must be equal to the sum of the changes in kinetic, potential, and thermal energies
energy stored in the chemical bonds of a substance
the rate at which work is done, the rate at which energy is converted from one form to another
the total of a systems thermal energy and chemical potential energy, the total energy stored microscopically within the system
the change in internal energy of a system is equal to the heat added to the system minus the work done by the system
ratio of useful work performed to total energy expended
unit of energy equivalent to 4.184 Joules